Here is some information about the composition dates of these works. The three Op.11 pieces were composed in 1909; the six Op.19 works in 1911; the Five pieces for piano Op.23 in 1921, and completed in 1923, the composition date of Suite Op.25. The two pieces Op.33a and 33b date back to 1930. The first idea associated with Schoenberg is that of having invented the series of twelve tones. This technical procedure, aimed at organising the total chromatic spectrum in accordance with logical principles, in particular the consequences of starting from an original serial form, emerged after a long period of deliberation during which Schoenberg suffered from writer's block, which prevented him from completing a single piece during an entire decade. The Suites Opus 23 and Opus 25 were the first pieces to be composed using the new technique, and when compared with Opus 33a and 33b, already published in the United States, we can catch a glimpse of how Schoenberg's serial techniques evolved. However, it is even more worthwhile for listeners to compare the pieces Opus 11 and Opus 19 from the so-called free atonality phase with the other 3 serial works. ...As well as the traditional comparisons between these two groups of pieces, it was not until Wolfgang Rihm that Schoenberg's works from his atonal phase were looked at again not as chromatic anticipations of the serial principle - but not yet fully "organised" - but rather as prodigious examples of intuitive and free musical expression.... ... By including Schoenberg from his atonal phase as an example of freedom, beside Beethoven as from the last quartets, Debussy, Varèse and, above all, Robert Schumann, Wolfgang Rihm draws attention to what seems to me to be the most important aspect: the fact that there is more "potential of future" in those works by Schoenberg than in his subsequent system. I would like to end these notes on this excellent and important record - whose performances are overflowing with energy and clarity - with a personal reference to the path followed by Madalena Soveral. This petite histoire could save future historical musicologists a lot of work - such musicologists in Portugal have an incipient existence which is somewhat confined to the university greenhouses where they undertake their research - if they were to deem the subject worthy. In around 1976, Álvaro Salazar started at the Porto School of Music, headed up by Hélia Soveral, one of the first if not the first musical analysis course in Portugal. At the time, this subject was not on the curriculum. This group of youngsters interested in discovering the mysteries of contemporary music, which they were part of, was shortly afterwards joined by Madalena Soveral. After a sojourn in Paris, the pianist returned to Porto where she satisfied our modernist longing, which had until then been unfulfilled, with recitals which included Klavierstück IX and XI by Stockhausen, Alban Berg's Sonata and several of the works included on this CD. This recording, in this way, not only provides an essential and unique document in Portuguese discography - which will probably remain unique for many years - since it adds substance to an artistic path which serves as an example for our generation. António Pinho Vargas, October 2008 MADALENA SOVERAL Madalena Soveral was born in Porto, where she studied music. She continued her training at the Porto Conservatory of Music, an then, sponsored by a grant from the SEC, at the Ecole Normale de Musique de Paris, where she obtained the "licence de concert". First studing under mother guidance, Hélia Soveral, she also studied under Reine Gianoli, Marian Rybicki, and Claude Helffer. In 1966 she awarded the "900 Musicale Europeo" prize, in Naples (Italy). Madalena Soveral has given concerts since 1990, both solo and with orchestra, as well as various forms of chamber music festivals of Naples, Santiago de Compostela, Sceaux, Festival de Montpellier-Radio France, Mantova (Italy), The UNESCO Twentieth Century Music Festival (Paris), Música Nova (Brasil), The 1st Lisbon Festival of Contemporary Musics (Lisbonne, T.N.S.C.), as well as at the Academia de Santa Cecília (Roma), The Theatre du Rond-Point, Auditorium des Halles and The Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro. Madalena Soveral has given solo performances with many Portuguese orchestras, under the direction of Manuel Ivo Cruz, Gunther Arglebe, Miguel Graça Moura, Cristóbal Halffter and Omri Hadari. During her career, Madalena Soveral has focussed on a 20th century repertoire working with a variety of composers and performers. Of special importance in this field is her work with the composer Giacinto Scelsi and with the "Les Percussions de Strasbourg" group, as well as her collaboration with the pianist Jean-Louis Haguenauer and the percussionists Christian Hamouy and Georges Van Gucht. She formed a group with these musicians, whose repertoire including such diverse works as Sonata (Bartok), Linea (Berio), Les Noces (Stravinsky), Schlagtrio (Stockhausen), Three Pieces for two Pianos (Ligeti). Madalena Soveral has performed the world premiere of numerous pieces, including those written especially for her : Estudos de Sonoridades (Filipe Pires), Interrogations (Miguel Graça Moura), Dominos (Sharon Kanach), In Tempore, for piano and electronic (João Pedro Oliveira), and Episode, for two pianos and two percussions (Francis Bayer). Coordenator Professor at the Escola Superior de Música e das Artes do Espectáculo do Porto, Madalena Soveral working in the last hears on a research project on 20th Century Portuguese Piano Music, at the University of Paris 8. Étude Analytique des Litanies du feu et de la mer d'Emmanuel Nunes, carried out between 1997-99, constitued the first part of that worh. In 2005 she completed the Doctorat in Music with the teses "Quatre compositeurs, Quatre oeuvres: la musique portugaise pour piano des années 90", about the piano's compositions from António Pinho Vargas, Filipe Pires, João Pedro Oliveira, and João Rafael. Since 2006 Madalena Soveral joined the research Center CESEM (Centro de Estudos de Sociologia e Estética Musical) of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Recordings: EDISON DENISOV, Oeuvres Instrumentales, Pierre Verany - PV 790112, 1990. EMMANUEL NUNES, Litanies du feu et de la mer, Numérica - Num 1007, 1992. FRANCIS BAYER, Oeuvres Instrumentales et Vocales, Pierre Verany - Pv 796093, 1996. FILIPE PIRES, J. PEDRO OLIVEIRA, XXth Century Portuguese Music, Numérica, NUM 1053, 1996. MÚSICA PORTUGUESA PARA PIANO - ANOS 90, Numérica, Num 1097, 2000. JOAO PEDRO OLIVEIRA, Pirâmides de Cristal. In "Obras de João Pedro Oliveira". CD NUM 1088, 1996. JOAO PEDRO OLIVEIRA, In Tempore, piano and electronic. CD Num 1123. 2005.